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BIBLE STUDY: Golgotha - The Place Of Goliath's Skull And The Death Of Christ

Imagine, if YOU could travel back in time to Passover Day, 31 A.D.! Imagine, if YOU could personally witness the Mocking and the Taunting of Jesus Christ, as He stumbled through the streets, to the place of His Public Execution! Imagine, YOU being an Eyewitness to EVERYTHING that was Said, and Done, the morning after Jesus ate His Last Supper with His Disciples, in the Upper Room; and broke bread as His Body, gave wine as His Blood, and Washed His Disciples’ feet – Establishing The Annual New Testament Passover in His Church forever (John 13:12-17)! If YOU could actually Witness, as Jesus Christ’s Disciples did - The Crucifixion of The Lamb of God; WHAT WOULD YOU REPORT BACK? WHAT WOULD YOU WRITE DOWN? WHAT WOULD YOU PASS ON to your children, and future generations, so as to Preserve History, and to Prepare Humanity - for The Future Return of The Son of Man?

Let us open up our Bibles today, and go Back in Time! Let us READ, and DISCOVER, and PROVE - These Remarkable TRUTHs for ourselves; from Actual EYEWITNESS accounts of those who were there!!!

Instructions: One Nation Under God Ministries ( publishes and distributes weekly Bible Studies, worldwide – free of charge, to anyone who requests them, in both printed and electronic formats. Our Studies are intended to be a simple and fun way to learn the Scriptures, and are very easy to follow! We adhere to Jesus Christ’s Biblical instructions to teach and feed the flock of God portions of meat in due season, on weekly Sabbaths, and on the seven annual Holy Days throughout each calendar year (Luke 12:42 / Isaiah 28:9-10 / Matthew 13:52). Using both the Old and New Testaments, our Bible Studies are designed to present a premise, make a statement, or ask a question – followed by one or more Scriptural references. Just look up and read from your Bible the Scriptures listed. Comments following questions elaborate on the Scriptures you just read. Pray always before beginning any study of God’s Word, asking God to open both your eyes and your mind to His Truth; then Prove everything you read, is in fact the Truth, by comparing it to The Word of God (1 Thessalonians 5:21 / 2 Timothy 3:15-17). Then use the Biblical System of Checks and Balances, and SEE if both Jesus Christ, and the First Century Church of God Apostles – also Did, Said, and Taught these SAME THINGS (Galatians 1:1-12, 5:25 / 1 Peter 2:21, 25 / 1 John 2:3-6)! That’s all there is to it! Our Bible Studies are based on the King James Version, unless otherwise stated. We will be praying for your eyes to “see” (Matthew 13:11-17); and we are always available to answer any of your questions! Be Blessed, in Jesus’ Name! - One Nation Under God Ministries is Preparing this world for The Return of Jesus Christ; One Bible Study At A Time! Join Us and Help Us get The Word (John 17:17) out there! JESUS IS LORD!!! (

PART I: Deuteronomy 29:22-29

“So that the generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say, when they see the plagues of that land, and the sicknesses which The LORD hath laid upon it; And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom, and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which The LORD overthrew in His Anger, and in His Wrath: Even all nations shall say, Wherefore hath The LORD done thus unto this land? What meaneth the heat of This Great Anger? Then men shall say, Because they have forsaken The Covenant of The LORD God of their fathers, which He Made with them when He brought them forth out of the land of Egypt: For they went and served other gods, and worshipped them, gods whom they knew not, and whom He had NOT given unto them: And The Anger of The LORD was Kindled Against this land, to bring upon it all the Curses that are Written in This Book: And The LORD Rooted Them Out of their land In Anger, and In Wrath, and In Great Indignation, and Cast Them into another land, as it is this day!!!”

“The Secret Things belong unto The LORD our God: but those things which are Revealed, belong unto us, and to our children, For Ever, that we may DO ALL The Words of This Law” (Deuteronomy 29:22-29)!!!

The Jewish Sin of The Crucifixion of Christ (John 19:11), and the Total Destruction of Jerusalem:

“His Blood Be Upon Us, And On Our Children!!!” (Matthew 27:25). Do NOT Ever Forget, that God wiped Jerusalem off the face of the earth, in 70 A.D., with the exception of Only ONE Structure; because of the Crucifixion of His Son, by the Jews in 31 A.D. (John 19:12-15 / Matthew 27:19-31). Every single manmade structure of wood was burned; and every single stone or brick building was COMPLETELY dismantled, overturned, and carried away, from the top of the Mount of Olives – in every direction – for 10 miles; EXCEPT for the Old Roman Fort!!! EVERYTHING you can see in the city of Jerusalem today, is newer than 70 A.D. – EXCEPT the Wailing Wall, and the foundational stones of that Old Fort!!!

Question: What will happen to Judah and Jerusalem just before Christ returns (Luke 21:20-24)? The modern English of the Moffatt translation may be a bit easier to understand here: "For Sore Anguish will come upon the land, and Wrath on this people!" Let’s also visit the parallel account in Matthew 24:15-20. Do you see God showing you a time of Great Tribulation coming upon the whole world (Matthew 24:21 / Zechariah 14:1-5)?

What would happen if Jesus did not return and intervene in the affairs of men (Matthew 24:22)?

Do you see how God is shortly going to make it impossible for anyone NOT to believe in God? They will either Praise Him or Curse Him, as these days approach! And ONLY those who are IN The Body of Christ will be SPARED; AND ONLY those who, within The Body, who are FOLLOWING Christ’s Instructions (Psalm 91:1-16 / Luke 21:34-38 / Zechariah 14:6-15)!!! Let Him that Readeth UNDERSTAND!!!         

Do YOU Believe The Words Of Jesus Over Your History Books? I DO!!!

The Wailing Wall in Jerusalem is NOT the remains of the Ancient Jewish Temple! If it is, then Jesus Christ is a Liar; and that CANNOT possibly happen!!!

"And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and His disciples came to Him for to shew Him the buildings of the temple. And Jesus said unto them, 'See ye not all These Things (the temple complex)? Verily I say unto you, There shall NOT be left here ONE STONE UPON ANOTHER, that shall not be thrown down!!!'" (Matthew 24:1-2).

The Wailing Wall is the remains of Antonia Fortress, which was a military barracks in the time of Christ, and was Pontius Pilot's Headquarters, located next to, and NORTH of the Jewish Temple!

The Roman Fort, built over the old Hasmonean Baris (a citadel constructed north of Jerusalem's Temple Mount, during the Hasmonean period); was built by Herod the Great, and named for his patron, Mark Antony! A pre 31 B.C. date is certain for the Fort as Mark Anthony was defeated by Octavius at the sea battle of Actium on September 2, 31 B.C.


The leaders of the modern Jewish State, known today as Israel, DO Understand This; otherwise they would NOT have given the site of the Dome, to the Arabs!!! However, keeping this knowledge hidden from the Arabs, appeases them in a false victory; and serves to bring in LOTS and LOTS of tourist dollars too! :o)



0n Monday, May 22, 2017, President Donald Trump became the first U.S. President to visit the Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall, located on the Westside of The Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. During his brief visit, President Trump, wearing a yarmulke, put his hand against one of the most sacred sites in Judaism; then placed what appeared to be a written prayer or note between its stones - as has become the modern day custom at the Wailing Wall.

Jerusalem is a city that has been fought over 16 times, it has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked in major offensives 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times so far! The Bible predicts there is more to come too!!!

The Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.:

In 63 B.C., Roman General Pompey desecrated the Temple by brazenly entering the Holy of Holies to see the image of the Jewish God, and found it empty of any idols. He did not plunder the Temple furnishings or treasury; and the next day ordered the temple cleansed, and the Jewish rituals to resume! The “Abomination of Desolation” spoken of by Jesus (Matthew 24:15) is the desecration of the Temple and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman armies in 70 A.D., after the Jews rebelled. This time, the Temple was completely destroyed by the Roman legions, and not one stone was left on another, as Jesus prophesied (Matthew 24:2 / Luke 19:43-44). But Jesus intended yet another fulfilment of Daniel’s prophecy in the time of the end!

The Destruction of The Temple – The Eyewitness Accounts of Josephus and Titus Agree With Jesus!!!

Let’s review some background on the Dome of the Rock, as it is today; and the Mount of Olives of yesteryear – when Jesus walked this earth, in the flesh.

Titus Flavius Josephus (37100 A.D.), was born Joseph Ben Matityahu, and was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem (which was at that time part of Roman Judea). His father was of priestly descent, and his mother claimed royal ancestry.

Josephus initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 A.D. to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claimed that the Jewish Messianic prophecies had initiated the First Roman-Jewish War, and made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome! In response, Vespasian decided to keep Josephus as a slave and as his Jewish Hebrew interpreter. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 A.D., he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius.

Flavius Josephus fully defected to the Roman side, and was granted Roman citizenship. He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., which resulted (when the Jewish revolt did not surrender) in the city's destruction; and in the looting and destruction of Herod's Temple (the Second Temple). See Matthew 24:1-2.

Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century A.D., and the First Jewish–Roman War, including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish War (75 A.D.) and Antiquities of the Jews (94 A.D.). The Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation (66–70 A.D.). The Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world, from a Jewish perspective, for an ostensibly Roman audience. These works now provide valuable insight into first century Judaism, and of course, the background of Early Christianity that we will be looking at today!

Josephus describes Antonia's fortress as pictured above (on page 5 of our Golgatha Bible Study Josephus' dimensions of the fort are: 115 m from East to West, Western side 35 m and Eastern side 42 m, with four towers. The rock on which the fortress was built was 50 cubits high (22-31 m). The height of the fortress itself was 40 cubits (18-25 m.) and it had 4 towers, one in each corner. The height of three of the towers was 50 cubits and the fourth tower was 70 cubits: "Now, as to the tower of Antonia, it was situated at the corner of two cloisters of the court of the temple; of that on the west, and that on the north; it was erected upon a rock, of fifty cubits in height, and was on a great precipice; it was the work of king Herod, wherein he demonstrated his natural magnanimity.

(239) In the first place, the rock itself was covered over with smooth pieces of stone, from its foundation, both for ornament, and that anyone who would either try to get up or to go down it, might not be able to hold his feet upon it.

(240) Next to this, and before you come to the edifice of the tower itself, there was a wall three cubits high; but within that wall all the space of the tower of Antonia itself was built upon, to the height, of forty cubits.

(241) The inward parts had the largeness and form of a palace, it being parted into all kinds of rooms and other conveniences, such as courts, and places for bathing, and broad spaces for camps; insomuch that, by having all conveniences that cities wanted, it might seem to be composed of several cities, but by its magnificence, it seemed a palace;

(242) and as the entire structure resembled that of a tower, it contained also four other distinct towers at its four corners; whereof the others were but fifty cubits high; whereas that which lay upon the southeast corner was seventy cubits high, that from thence the whole temple might be viewed;

(243) but on the corner where it joined to the two cloisters of the temple, it had passages down to them both, through which the guard

(244) (for there always lay in this tower a Roman legion [that would be about 6,000 soldiers with a support crew of 3-4,000 additional people]) went several ways among the cloisters, with their arms, on the Jewish festivals, in order to watch the people, that they might not there attempt to make any innovations;                                            

 (245) for the temple was a fortress that guarded the city, as was the tower of Antonia a guard to the temple; and in that tower were the guards of those three. There was also a peculiar fortress belonging to the upper city, which was Herod's palace;

(246) but for the hill Bezetha, it was divided from the tower of Antonia, as we have already told you; and as that hill on which the tower of Antonia stood, was the highest of these three, so did it adjoin to the new city, and was the only place that hindered the sight of the temple on the north.

(247) And this shall suffice at present to have spoken about the city and the walls about it, because I have proposed to myself to make a more accurate description of it elsewhere." (Josephus, Wars 5.238-247).

Then Came The Absolute and Totally Complete Destruction in 70 A.D.!!!

"It [Jerusalem with its walls] was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it [Jerusalem] had ever been inhabited" (The Jewish War VII. 1,1).

“They had cut down all the trees, that were in the country that adjoined to the city, and that for ninety stadia round about [for nearly ten miles], as I have already related. And truly, the very view itself was a melancholy thing. Those places that were before adorned with trees and pleasant gardens were now become a desolate country in every way, and its trees were all cut down. Nor could any foreigner that had formerly seen Judaea and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, and now saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn sadly at so great a change. For the war had laid all signs of beauty quite waste. Nor, if any one that had known the place before, and had come on a sudden to it now, would he have known it again. But though he were at the city itself, yet would he have inquired for it notwithstanding" (The Jewish War VI. 1,1, the Whiston translation).

The Wailing Wall of today is NOT part of the original Temple!!!

President Donald Trump visited the Wailing Wall on 22 May 2017. He was the first U.S. President ever to do so; and while he was there, he placed a written prayer between the cracks of the bricks, as has become a recent custom at this location. What message is he sending by these actions? Does he know The Truth about the Temple Mount?

After A.D.70, people would have seen utter desolation in all directions. Every stone of every building and wall, in Jerusalem, was dislodged from its original position and thrown down to the ground. Josephus provides reasonable accounts of later events after the war was over to show how this complete destruction was accomplished. Much of the destruction came after the war had ceased. For six months after the war, Josephus tells us that the Tenth Legion "dug up" the ruins of the houses, buildings and walls looking for plunder. They systematically excavated beneath the foundations of the ruined buildings and houses (they had many of the Jewish captives do the work for them). They also had the whole area turned upside down looking for gold and other precious metals that became molten when the fires were raging. This caused the precious metals to melt and flow into the lower crevices of the stones. Even the foundation stones contained melted gold from the great fires that devoured Jerusalem. This plundering of every former building or wall in the municipality of Jerusalem resulted in the troops overturning (or having the remaining Jewish captives overturn for them) and displacing every stone within the city of Jerusalem!!!

This continual digging up of the city occurred over a period of several months after the war. History records that after an absence of about four months, Titus returned to Jerusalem from Antioch, and once again viewed the ruined city. Josephus records what Titus saw:

"As he came to Jerusalem in his progress [in returning from Antioch to Egypt], and compared the melancholy condition he saw it then in, with the ancient glory of the city [compared] with the greatness of its present ruins (as well as its ancient splendor). He could not but pity the destruction of the city…. Yet there was no small quantity of the riches that had been in that city still found among the ruins, a great deal of which the Romans dug up; but the greatest part was discovered by those who were captives [Jewish captives were forced by the Roman troops to dig up the stones of their own city looking for gold], and so they [the Romans] carried it away; I mean the gold and the silver, and the rest of that most precious furniture which the Jews had, and which the owners had treasured up under ground against the uncertainties of war." The Wailing Wall of today is NOT part of the original Temple!

Three Years After The War That Leveled EVERY Stone - Another Account Of The Complete Desolation of Jerusalem:

Eleazar, the Last Jewish commander at Masada, related what happened to Jerusalem, three years after the war was finished. His eyewitness account of how the Romans preserved Fort Antonia (the Haram) among the ruins of the city is remarkable, and virtually unknown today by those who visit the Holy Lands today! Remember, it was Eleazar who spoke to the 960 Jewish people who were going to commit suicide rather than fall into the hands of General Silva; who was on the verge of capturing the Fortress of Masada. Commander Eleazar lamented over the sad state of affairs that everyone present had witnessed now that the war with the Romans was over. Jerusalem was to him a disastrous spectacle of utter ruin. There was only one thing that was still standing; this was the Camp of the Romans that Titus had permitted to remain - as a monument of humiliation over the Mother City of the Jews! Eleazar acknowledged that this military encampment had been in Jerusalem before the war, and that Titus let it continue after the war! The retention of this single Camp of the Romans, according to Eleazar, was a symbol of the victory that Rome had achieved over the Jewish people. Let’s read some of his words which are recorded for all to see in The Jewish War VII. 8, 7!!!

“And where is now that great city [Jerusalem], the metropolis of the Jewish nation, which was fortified by so many walls round about, which had so many fortresses and large towers to defend it, which could hardly contain the instruments prepared for the war, and which had so many ten thousands of men to fight for it? Where is this city that was believed to have God himself inhabiting therein? It is now demolished to the very foundations, and hath nothing left but that monument of it preserved, I mean the camp of those [the Romans] that hath destroyed it, which still dwells upon its ruins; some unfortunate old men also lie ashes upon the Temple [the Temple was then in total ruins — all of it had been burnt to ashes], and a few women are there preserved alive by the enemy, for our bitter shame and reproach."

What Eleazar saw and wrote about is an eyewitness account of the state of Jerusalem in the year A.D.73. His words are of critical importance to Followers of Christ today – that is why God has preserved them!!! Commander Eleazar wrote that the City of Jerusalem and all its Jewish fortresses had indeed been demolished "to the very foundations"!!! There was nothing left of the City or the Temple! This is exactly what Jesus prophesied would happen; and this is exactly what is going to happen AGAIN (Zechariah 14:1-2)!!!

The Jews had the Greater Sin of The Crucifixion of Christ (John 19:11), and the Total Destruction of Jerusalem was the result!!!

“His Blood Be Upon Us, And On Our Children!!!” (Matthew 27:25).

Jerusalem is a city that has been fought over 16 times, it has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked in major offensives 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times so far! The Bible predicts there is more to come too!!!

Eleazar mentions the "wholesale destruction" of the city. He said that God had "abandoned His most holy city to be burnt and razed to the ground" (The Jewish War VII. 8,6 Loeb translation). Commander Eleazar concludes his eyewitness account by stating: "I cannot but wish that we had all died before we had seen that holy city demolished by the hands of our enemies, or the foundations of our Holy Temple dug up, after so profane a manner!!!" (The Jewish War VII.8, 7).

And Jesus said unto them, ‘See ye not all these things (the Temple Complex)? Verily I Say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down!!!” (Matthew 24:2).

Now YOU Know… that the very foundation stones that comprised the Temple complex (including its walls) had been uprooted and demolished. They were then "dug up", and not even the lower courses of base stones were left in place!!! According to Eleazar, the only thing left in the Jerusalem area was a single Roman Camp (or Fortress) that still hovered (higher elevation) triumphantly over the ruins of the City and the Temple. He said that Jewish Jerusalem "hath nothing left"!!! The only thing continuing to exist was the "monument" (a single monument) preserved by Titus – “the camp of those that destroyed it [Jerusalem], which still dwells upon its ruins.”

According to Josephus, the main military establishment in Jerusalem prior to the war was Fort Antonia located to the north of the Temple (which is now the Haram esh-Sharif – or where the Dome of the Rock is today)!!! Haram was considered Roman property even before the war with the Jews began.

Because Antonia was the property of Rome, they had no reason to destroy something that already was theirs! This is where Pilate was when Jesus was brought from the Temple to appear before him! This is why Titus left Fort Antonia (the Haram esh-Sharif / the sanctuary fortress or sanctuary of strength) and its walls in tact! We can still see them today, with a golden dome built upon them!!!

The Dome of the Rock sits upon the ruins of the Old Roman Fort; The Wailing Wall is NOT the last remains of Solomon’s Temple! God’s Temple was located to the right of the wall on the photo below.          


History Will Repeat Itself, Yet Again!!!       

A short time before Christ returns, armies will once again surround Jerusalem and an “abomination” will be done on the Temple Mount. As Matthew 24:21 says, this act inaugurates the time of Great Tribulation. At that time, the saints in Jerusalem are told to flee to the mountains for safety (Matthew 24:16; Luke 21:20-21). Invading armies will again perform a blasphemous rite, and an idol will be erected in the Temple precincts, as in the former desolation. In the Old Testament, "abomination" is often synonymous with an "idol" (Daniel 11:45 / Revelation 13:11-18). So we can see here that the Beast will build a temple to himself on the Mount of Olives, after stopping the twice daily sacrifices (that have not even started yet, as of this writing) and defiling the altar; once this temple is completed, the false prophet who can call down fire from heaven, will convince the world to make an image to the beast – this image placed in the temple will have supernatural abilities to both speak and kill those who do not worship the Beast (2 Thessalonians 2:1-12)!


Please see our “King Of The North” Bible Study series for much more about the End Times Man of Perdition!

The Jews DO intend to START sacrificing on the Temple Mount again, and in OUR VERY NEAR FUTURE - so says Jesus Christ; but NOT where the Dome of the Rock is; and NOT where the Old Roman Fort - where Christ was scourged (John 1:29) - was!!!

When the sacrifices do begin, it will be where the old temple really was!!!


That what MOST people believe to be the location, and the Remains, of the Old Jewish Temple – is NOT!!! Churches, the tourist industry, and the modern Nation of Israel, all continue to give this LIE life; and they teach, and re-teach it to each generation! We MUST Believe The Bible, FIRST and FOREMOST; then the history books, BUT ONLY WHEN AND IF, they agree with the Bible!!!


Let us now continue on, and SEE MORE of what the world always seems to get WRONG, about the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ!

Hopefully, you have already read our 3 Part - Passover Bible Study series; if so YOU now Know and have Proven that Jesus Christ was our Passover Lamb, and that He died on a Wednesday afternoon, on a Passover Day, and that He Rose from His Tomb on a Saturday afternoon, as our First Fruits - BEFORE sunset! Easter Sunday is a pagan LIE (1 Kings 11:1-11)!!!

Just as human tradition has led us to believe, incorrectly, that three wise men came to see Jesus when He was born (See our Feast of Trumpets Bible Study for much more on this); we have also been led to believe that Jesus was crucified in between two thieves! This IS NOT SO!!!

Our, “Why Was Christ Crucified?” Bible Study would also have Proven to YOU the 3 Reasons Christ was killed; and also that Jesus was One of FIVE people that died on a cross that day. Please go back and READ these very important Bible Studies, if you have not already done so!!!



Strangely, our Study today on the Place of Christ’s Crucifixion, would NOT be complete if we didn’t first begin with David’s Epic Battle against a Very Big Man- Goliath of Gath!!!

Let’s Read 1 Samuel 17:1-11

“Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephesdammim. And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines. And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side: and there was a valley between them. And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span.

NOTE: 1 Samuel 17:4 / KJV translation would put Goliath’s height at about Nine Feet, Nine Inches (SIX CUBITS AND A SPAN) – or 2.972 Meters! Jerome’s fourth century A.D. Latin translation (the Vulgate), which appears to follow the Hebrew proto-MT faithfully, likewise puts Goliath at six cubits and a span. The Vulgate gradually grew in popularity in the West and eventually became the “received text” for the Western churches, thus codifying the 9’9” giant into Western culture.

HOWEVER, the textual evidence for the variant reading of “FOUR CUBITS AND A SPAN” (Six Feet, Nine Inches) – or 2.057 Meters, IS SIGNIFICANTLY STRONGER!

The textual witnesses for the variant that cites Goliath’s height at four cubits and a span (6’9”) include:

  1. 4QSama, the oldest extant Hebrew manuscript for this text.
  2. Vaticanus, the oldest complete Greek codex of the Bible.
  3. Josephus (whom we allotted much time to above, in order to validate his historical accounts), is a non-Biblical first-century ad reference. As a first-century Jewish historian though; Josephus’ account demonstrates to us Convincingly, that Goliath’s shorter height was Well Established in the Hebrew Bible of His day!!!
  4. The Lucian Greek recension, a third-century ad witness; and
  5. Other early codices such as Alexandrinus (Commonly known as the “Septuaginta” (LXXII) or shortened “Septuagint” – a Greek translation of the Old Testament, completed no later than the mid second-century B.C. AMAZINGLY, one of the Hebrew copies of the Book of Samuel found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains text from 1 and 2 Samuel. Although parts of the text are damaged, 1 Samuel 17:3-6 is not!!! This text dates to around 50 B.C., and is The Oldest Hebrew Copy of this part of 1 Samuel; so it is Significant that it has the Shorter Height of Goliath as Four cubits and a span or Six Feet, Nine Inches (2.057 Meters)!!!

A 6’9” tall Goliath (2.057 Meters), would have been at least 20 centimeters taller than the heroes found in Iron Age Mycenaen tombs, and 30-40 centimeters taller than the average Iron Age man. This indicates that even the heroes of that time period, were only 10-15 centimeters taller than the average man; and a man 30 centimeters taller than these heroes (as Goliath was), would have been a real Post Flood Giant, on the shrinking scales of human sizes following the days of Noah! Goliath at 6’9” was almost 40 centimeters taller than the average man. King Saul needed not to have been more than 6 feet tall to be head and shoulders above all of Israel! Remember, King Saul is more concerned with Goliath’s Fighting Ability and Experience; than with Goliath’s Height (1 Samuel 17:31-40)! Neither David, nor Saul, are overly concerned about Goliath’s Height; and David having already watched Goliath in battle (1 Samuel 17:19-29), has already formulated a battle strategy to defeat him!!!

At 6”9”, Goliath of Gath, was still a Big, Man; but it was Goliath’s muscular girth, and fierceness, that dismayed most – but NOT David!!!

Let’s Continue with our text in 1 Samuel 17:5-11

“And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass.

NOTE: Surviving brass shekels from this time period, contained only a fourth part of an ounce; and so 5,000 shekels of brass would weigh in at 1,250 ounces, or exactly at 78 pounds. A coat of Mail of this weight would not be unsuitable for a man of such stature and strength, as the Scriptures suggest Goliath possessed! Even if we went with the more modern, one half ounce weight to the shekel of brass; that would put Goliath’s armor coat at 156 pounds, 4 ounces.


How much weight can a Very Tall, Very Muscular Philistine Warrior carry into Battle?

(1 Samuel 17:6-11) “And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders. And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam (with a rope loop handle to help him wield it!); and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron (about 15 pounds).

NOTE: A normal spear head from this time period would have been eight inches, maybe a foot long, and weigh in at about a pound, roughly half a kilogram at most! In 1962 near Kfar Monash, a settlement in the plain of Sharon, near the Coast of Israel; a cache of early Bronze age weapons and tools were found. Among these were several Giant copper spearheads 66 cm long (26 inches) weighing 2.05 kg (4.5 lbs). These would be about the same size as Goliath’s Spear head, and if they were made of Iron instead of Copper – they would weigh in at close to the same 15 pounds as Goliath’s Spearhead!!! Also found in the 1962 dig, were 800 copper plates, 5 cm x 11 cm, (2 inches wide by 4 1/3 inches long) which may have been used for scale armor, for rather large warriors!!!

(Continuing in verse :7) “and one bearing a shield went before him. And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array? Am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? Choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me!!! If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us!!! And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together!!! When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid!!!” (1 Samuel 17:7-11).

Studying the above Scriptures, critically: 78 pounds (low end) to 156 pounds (high end) for armor, and maybe another 30-40 pounds for helmet, spear, sword, and leggings (200 pounds maximum) isn’t a lot of weight, for a slow moving, but very muscular and mesomorphic, 6’9” warrior (1 Samuel 17:44).

Goliath had to lumber slowly forward; while David was very quick, agile, and nimble on his feet!

Louis (Lou) Jude Ferrigno, born in 1951, was a very popular and widely known body builder in the 1970’s through the 1990’s. He is probably best known as the star of the Incredible Hulk T.V. series, where most people got their first look at his Massive Physique! Lou, at the height of his career, was 6 feet, 5 inches tall (195.5 cm), and weighed in between 285-295 pounds (129.3-133.8 kg). His biceps were 22.5” (inches), chest 59”, waist 34”, thighs 29”. If Hollywood was going to cast someone to be Goliath in an upcoming movie, Lou Ferrigno would be my choice! Looking at photographs of Lou; it is easy to see why other men of war would fear Goliath! Add in Goliath’s documented Violent behavior, and war fighting history; and you would have a True Menace on your hands!!! At 6’5”, 295 pounds; Lou could handle a lot of battle gear. At 6’9”, and even heavier; Goliath could easily carry his Biblical Battle Load too!



How much weight can an average American Soldier, with military conditioning and strength training, carry into Battle?

While I was in the U.S. Marine Corps, and during my years as  Law Enforcement S.W.A.T. Cadre; I cannot ever recall weighing myself in my battle or entry gear, to see how much my gear, my weapons, and myself weighed. We just trained Hard, and Lifted Heavy; so we could put a 200 pounds-plus man, into lots of armor, weapons, and ammunition, and get the job done! We weren’t going to go running after anyone in a fight; but with all that gear and toys, we dominated every place we walked into!

But in 2003, Colonel Charles Dean; a military equipment expert, decided to study the weight worn of Combat Soldiers in Eastern Afghanistan – specifically that of an infantry soldier. His team joined with the 82nd Airborne Division, collecting data, and weighing more than 750 soldiers with a range of different jobs.

When soldiers headed out on foot patrols, their average load ranged from 87 pounds to 127 pounds. When they came under attack and dropped their rucksacks, most of their fighting loads still exceeded 60 pounds!!!

In his final report, Colonel Dean sounded an alarm. “If an aggressive weight loss program is not undertaken by the U.S. Army, the soldier’s combat load will continue to increase, and his physical performance will continue to be even more severely degraded!!!”

David understood, as would the later Roman Legions, what Colonel Dean would in recent times - rediscover; that lighter troops can move and fight faster – especially when using projectile based weaponry! There is a time to fight heavy and there is a time to fight light! There is a time to fight up close and personal; and there is a time to fight at a distance (Psalm 144:1-2)!!!


David Defeats Goliath In Battle (1 Samuel 17:41-54)


The Bible recounts how King Saul wanted to reward David for his victory over the Philistines. The reward had been previously stated by the king, and all the army of Israel knew what King Saul would grant to the one who defeated Goliath (1 Samuel 17:25)! Saul at this time, knew who he had sent out into battle against Goliath (verse :32, 37-38); but he did not know who David’s father was, so as to make his house and his estate, tax free, from this point forward (1 Samuel 17:55-58)                                       



David Becomes A National Hero!!!

David keeps the Giant’s armor, and probably the sword, shield, and spear too; as trophies of war (1 Samuel 17:54)! He gives Saul the head of his enemy; but then what?

What did King Saul do with the Giant’s Head, after he received it?

The Place Of The Skull?


“The Place of The Skull” is a very strange natural rock formation with caves carved into it. It also has a very interesting history! The above photograph is from the turn of the century, before much of the presently existing structures were built. Below, is how it looks today!


Calvary Today:

The location of Jesus Christ’s Crucifixion is known today as both Calvary (skull) and Golgotha (The Place of The Skull).

Not only Did David bury the Philistine’s head, outside the city, “Goliath of Gath”, “Gol- Gath”, “Golgotha”; which is CALLED (Pay CLOSE ATTENTION to the WORDS John uses in John 19:17) “The Place of The Skull”, which is called in Hebrew “Golgotha”!!! The Very Place ACTUALLY Resembles a Giant Human Skull (See the photos above)!!! Everyone in Jerusalem, at that time, knew this place was where David placed Goliath’s Head! That’s HOW it got it’s Name!!!

  1. The Late Latin word, Calvāria, where we get our modern word, Calvary from; literally means skull.
  2. The Greek word, κρανίον (kran-ee-on), translated as Cranium, means skull, or the head of a skeletal frame. Cranium, is commonly used in English today, as a medical term for skull. Golgatha in Greek today, means place of The Skull!
  3. The Modern Hebrew word, Gulgolet , means Skull (or Poll). It is derived from the English word Golgotha, meaning “The Place of The Skull” (or in Hebrew “Gulgolth”).
  4. The Aramaic word, Gulgaltha, has the same meaning as the Hebrew word “Gulgoleth” above (Place of The Skull).

It seems everybody, in the old days, knew where the Big, Giant, Head was! Now to teach this Truth to today’s generation!!!

Counting Polls or Skulls?

Numbers 1:2, 1:18 / 1 Chronicles 23:3, 24 / 2 Kings 9:35

As you can see from the above scriptures, golgolet is used in the context of taking a census, or “a poll” by counting the "heads", "skulls", or “polls” - of the individuals over age twenty. By the time the first century rolled along, Poll (or skull) became Golgolet, and was called Golgotha in Greek; and became associated with an actual place where they counted people (or skulls – polls), as they entered Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives! In first-century Jerusalem, that place was “The Place of The Skull”!!!

Now YOU know why a voting place, is called a “polling” place or the polls!                                  


Golgotha was on, and bordered one of the major roads that led into Jerusalem. This place was a bottleneck for people coming into the city from the east, and so was a station point for the "counting of the skulls," or the "lifting up of the heads." It is also why the Romans crucified criminals at this location, to deter any who were coming into the city with nefarious intentions that this would be their destiny. This is another reason why it was called Golgotha; and this is why the Romans would write the Criminal charges, on the cross of a condemned man – not just for Jesus; BUT FOR ALL THAT HUNG ON THE CROSS – TO DETER THAT CRIME IN THE FUTURE (John 19:17-22)!!!

Jesus was NOT Crucified on top of Golgotha; but rather next to it!                                               


Those who were entering Jerusalem from the East had to pass right by Golgotha. It was a natural bottleneck, and would allow soldiers or officials, to climb up on the rocks, and look down on the road’s traffic, to monitor and count visitors to the city. The condemned were placed next to the roadway, so MANY people (John 19:20), as John would write; could read the charges or crimes of the dying men – posted on their crosses (Pilate would write extra, beyond the charge of “Malfactor” or Rebel for Jesus’ Cross).

- John 19:19 “put it on the cross”. This does NOT say WHERE on the cross it was posted!!!

- Matthew 27:36-37 “and SITTING DOWN they watched him there; and set up over His Head (His Poll) His Accusation written”. A Charge or Accusation, directed at you, over you, or toward you – DOES NOT have to mean literally nailed to the cross ABOVE his Head; but that the charge was directed AT or OVER his head or poll! The focus is on the head, skull, or poll; and the CHARGES levied at it (Isaiah 28:9-10 / 1 Thessalonians 5:21).

- Mark 15:26 “And the ‘superscription’ of His Accusation was written ‘over’ (or Pilate had OVERWRITTEN His Charge of Malfactor / Rebel with the additional: ‘The KING of The Jews!’, OVER the Original Charge! This in NO WAY says the sign with the charges was nailed to the cross above Jesus’ Head!!!

- Luke 23:38 “And a ‘Superscription’ ALSO (in addition to the Original charge of Malfactor) was written over Him (as pronouncing a charge or curse, Over or Against someone), in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, ‘THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS!’”. Again, this DOES NOT say the sign was nailed or posted above Christ’s Head; only that it was pronounced over him – figuratively and legally!!!

Remember: Blessings and Curses in the Bible, are ascribed by placing hands on the Head (or Poll / Skull) of the person who is to receive them (Genesis 48:12-20 / Leviticus 1:4, 16:21)!!!


  1.  MOST have been conditioned to THINK and SEE 3 Crosses on top of a hill; instead of 5 Crosses NEXT TO a hill! See our “Why was Christ Crucified?” Bible Study at for more Proof on this!
  2.  MOST have been conditioned to THINK of and SEE, a skinny, long haired, bearded Christ on a cross; instead of a well-muscled, short haired, clean shaven Christ! See our “Will The Real Jesus Christ Please Stand Up” Bible Study at for more Proof on this!
  3.  MOST have been conditioned to THINK and SEE, only Christ’s cross with a sign above His Head; Instead of all 5 crosses with signs, BENEATH the condemned mens’ feet (or at an average man’s - standing, face level), in order for the MANY passing pedestrians and wagon traffic, to EASILY READ the charges!!!
  4.  Most have been conditioned to THINK and SEE, nails driven through Christ’s Palms and the tops of His Feet; instead of Nails driven through His Wrists and the sides of His Akles!!! More on this below!!!

Nobody was going to climb up a steep rock, off the roadway, to read the small letters of a sign posted at the top of a cross! The Romans would nail “The Charges Against Us” (ie: Escaped Slave, Marauder / Pirate, Malfactor / Rebel. See Colossians 2:14) usually on the bottom of a cross (at face level) so most people could READ THE CHARGES, as they walked by; and mock the dying!

It’s Time for us to Truly Understand Why The Lamb of God Died!

Think about the incredible significance of this fact: Jesus Christ came, and by sacrificing Himself for all Israel, paid the ransom for us according to The Law! But He also died on the very spot where the Romans "counted the skulls" for their census of anyone coming into Jerusalem. Anyone who desired to come to the Holy Mountain would first have to go through the outer gate, Golgotha (Jesus), and be counted as His - by accepting the ransom (His Blood) that was paid for their entrance. Indeed, Jesus, Himself Said, "No man comes to The Father except through Me!!!" (John 14:6, 10:1-18). 

Let us look at yet Another Reason Why was Jesus crucified NEXT TO a hill known as The Place of The Skull (Goliath of Gath / Gol-Gath / Golgotha)!!!

In Genesis 3:15 we have the first prophecy of the coming of the Lord Jesus to be the Savior of mankind: “And I will put hostility between you [Satan] and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; he shall crush your head, and you shall bruise his heel.” The crushing of Satan’s head is our first clue as to why Jesus was crucified on Calvary, The Place of The Skull. Moses prophetically writes that there will come a time when the future seed of the woman will crush the head of the serpent!!!

After David slays Goliath, he cuts his head off, and brings it to Jerusalem. Victors would often decapitate their foe and then set them on a hill or a site that would display victory for all to see. Why not on – and then in - The Hill that Already looks like a Skull; and is a narrow bottle neck road, into the city? Now The Skull Look-A-Like Rock, can be The Place, not of any skull; But of THE Giant’s Skull!!!

The fact that David brought Goliath’s head to Jerusalem is quite astonishing since Jerusalem at this time was inhabited by David’s enemies, the Jebusites. The question is, where did David bring the head of Goliath? The Scripture doesn’t tell us but I don’t think it would be going too far out on a limb, to suggest that the giant’s skull, was buried on Calvary!!!

Fulfilling Scripture!!!

The REAL Significance of Jesus being Crucified on Calvary, The Place of The Skull, was to show His VICTORY over His enemy, Satan (Genesis 3:15)!!! As the nail would have been driven through the heels of the one crucified, the prophecy of Genesis 3:15 was being partially fulfilled! Satan would bruise His (Jesus Christ’s) HEEL (The Nails DID NOT go through the top of Christ’s feet as we see in pagan church idols of Christ, and are brainwashed into believing in the movies)!!! Jesus had Nails Hammered Through His Ankles!!!

The remainder of the prophecy was fulfilled as Jesus (The Son of David) was lifted above the ground (at The Place of The Skull) - CRUSHING the head of Satan; just as David defeated the enemy of Israel, by cutting off his head!!! Jesus was literally in a position over His enemies, over the Giants of Evil!!!


The Times of Israel:

In a 26 March 2012 article, written by Matti Friedman, there was a picture of an interesting bone and a very big nail!


The Remains of a Crucifixion Victim survives in a stone box - with its impaling Nail intact! An ossuary at the Israel Museum contains the only physical evidence ever found, for the Roman practice of execution on the cross!   

It is interesting to note, so far as I could determine; in all of archaeology, there is NO other evidence, no remains, no physical proof of a person’s remains – who had been crucified. No evidence of the punishment: no existing crosses, and no perforated skeletons, are found anywhere in the world – until recently. The one exception: a stone box of Yehohanan’s remains was discovered in the 1970’s.

After Yehohanan’s body was removed from the cross, it would have been laid out in a burial cave. After the flesh had decomposed a year or so later, leaving only the skeleton, his bones were gathered in a simple stone box, an ossuary; in keeping with the Jewish practice of that time. Today, the box is displayed in a gallery, at the Israel Museum, alongside other artifacts from the period of Roman rule in Judea.

His name is inscribed in simple letters on one side: Yehohanan, son of Hagakol. (Some scholars, interpreting the letters differently, believe the second name is Hezkil.)

Inside the box, archaeologists found a heel bone with an iron stake driven through it, indicating that the occupant of the ossuary had been nailed to a cross! Proof at last!!!


The position of the stake was evidence of a crucifixion technique that had not previously been known, according to museum curator David Mevorah. In the image of crucifixion made famous by Christian iconography, Jesus is pictured with both feet nailed to the front of the vertical beam of the cross. But this man’s feet had been affixed to the sides of the beam with nails hammered separately through each heel! Now Genesis 3:15 makes much MORE sense; doesn’t it? Praise God!!!

The bones of Yehohanan’s hands showed no sign of wounds, indicating that

  1. they had been tied, rather than nailed, to the horizontal bar; or
  2. they had been nailed through, just below the wrists, on the forearms; as was Jesus Christ!


The surprising lack of similar physical evidence for crucifixion elsewhere, Mevorah said, may be due to beliefs that crucifixion nails had magic properties. People in the ancient world, he said, “might have collected the nails as amulets.”

Yehohanan was not alone in his ossuary: Inside, archaeologists found a second skeleton, this one belonging to a child aged three or four. They also noticed that the side of the ossuary bore a second, fainter inscription near the first. Curiously, this one also read “Yehohanan.”

After the discovery of the ossuary in the 1970s, the famous Israeli archaeologist Yigael Yadin suggested that the faint inscription referred to the crucified man and the second inscription — Yehohanan, son of Hagakol — to his son.

“Hagakol” is not a name familiar to scholars, and this theory suggested it was not a name at all. Instead, Yadin thought, having looked at similar words in use at the time, it might have meant “crucified.” The inscription thus read: Yehohanan, son of the Crucified One.

The child Yehohanan, in this version of events, died not long after the elder Yehohanan’s execution, and his bones were added to those of his father in the unadorned stone ossuary kept in the family’s burial cave north of the walled city.

How Was Jesus Christ Crucified?

Jesus Said He Would be Crucified: (Matthew 26:2); but what type of Crucifixion did Christ endure?

  1. Was He nailed to a tree, or tied to a tree?
  2. Was He nailed to a post, or tied to a post?
  3. Was He nailed to a Cross; and / or tied to a Cross?
  4. What kind of Crosses did the Romans use?
  5. Was the Cross of Christ a traditional Cross, and X Cross, a T Cross, or just a plain post of tree, with no cross piece at all?

Let us PROVE from the Bible our answer; and then let us see if history, and surviving eyewitness accounts, will also verify our Newly Discovered and Proven Biblical Truth!


Some of those who were Crucified, were executed as the illustration above shows us. Two “Crossed” posts or poles (trees) were used in an “X” fashion; with the victim either tied or nailed to the structure!

The word commonly translated as 'crucified' is the Greek word “stauroo” which sometimes can mean impalement on a stake or pole. Outside of the Biblical use of that word; it is still used today, to mean putting up a fence or a pole! Actually, that term is translated as 'crucified' at least 46 times in the New Testament. So, Does “crucified” (stauroo) ALWAYS mean to impale? No, it does not!

History is full of examples of people being impaled on posts; and yes, the Romans were known to do this too. But the Bible is clear; Jesus was Crucified: nailed to a Cross – NOT Impaled!!! So “stauroo” can and does also mean to “Hang on a tree” or “hang on a post”!!!


Here is an example of the old practice of Impaling. The victims were usually impaled alive, on the stake or pike; then left to rot and their bodies to decay, as warnings to those who opposed the current despot, dictator, or king! Christ was NOT Impaled!

Did the Romans Often Use Crosses? 

The Romans did use several types of crosses as part of their capital punishment. In Crucifixions, what they tended to use was a tree or pole. Not something that looks like the type of crosses in most churches today (neatly trimmed and finished timbers; assembled and carried together by the victim). (Samuelsson, p. 338).

Usually, in places where multiple crucifixions would take place, the Romans would use large posts, or tree trunks, as their post or stake; then they would nail the condemned “stretched out” onto a “Cross” or “cross piece” – arm to arm, and hoist them up the post or tree to die! In this way, they could have a sort of production line, or a conveyor of death plant, that was Very Efficient in killing large groups and numbers of people. As we will show you today from historical records, this was the same mindset that Adolph Hitler and the Nazis adopted during World War II. Quick, Efficient, Repetitive Killings on a large scale!!! Executioners could choose how long to keep their victims alive, by whether or not they inflicted additional injuries on their prey; ie: burning them, spearing them, or even breaking their legs to speed up the process!


The Road to Rome lined with Crosses. Here the condemned would be tied or nailed to a “cross” (in reality and in practice - a cross beam), then hoisted up by rope and pulley system to die! Once the victim was dead, they would lower and remove one body and cross piece; then quickly and efficiently hoist up another! Mass Executions were perfected by Rome, and other ancient cultures, in this manner; and revolts quickly quelled!!!

Although there are references to crucifixions hundreds of years before the Romans, these sometimes can also refer to other forms of impalement, or cases where offenders were nailed to trees and other frames, where they were left to die!


Here is an old illustration of someone nailed to a “tree” or pole. In many of these instances, additional spikes or nails were used, sometimes through the body to help hold a person onto their pole, tree, or cross!

Let’s Recap:

The Greek word translated “cross” is stauros, meaning “a pole” or “a cross” used as an instrument of capital punishment. The Greek word “stauroo”, which is translated “crucify” means “to be attached to a pole or cross”. It can mean impale on a stake, or it can mean to be tied or nailed to a structure too! Outside of the Bible, the same verb was also used in the context of putting up a fence with stakes.

In Latin word "crux" which is generally translated as "cross", and originally had an even less specific meaning, referring to any object on which victims were impaled or hanged. So, even the Latin word did not have to mean a cross. Crosses, as seen in Greco-Roman churches, were not as common of a capital punishment device as many seem to think. Knowing all this, let us now ask:

"Was Jesus crucified on a cross, pole, or stake?"

The cross is arguably the most beloved symbol in all of Christianity. It adorns our churches and cathedrals, our jewelry, our books, Bibles, T-shirts, and music, and is used in numerous marketing logos. The empty cross has come to symbolize the work performed there by our Savior, who went to His death willingly; in order to pay the penalty for our sins!!! Among Jesus’ last words before He died were, “It is finished” (John 19:30). The Law was fulfilled by Him; and Jesus, as He Did during Creation, had “Finished” that particular part of God’s Plan, and had BECOME OUR SAVIOR!!! The Messianic prophecies pertaining to His first advent were accomplished, and redemption was complete. Christ would now BEGIN His New Role of being our Intercessor, at The Right Hand of God; and we, as His Disciples, would continue Follow Him and Keep His Law (John 14:15,21 / 1 John 2:3-6 / Revelation 22:14); bringing others to His Cross to be WASHED in the Soul Cleansing Blood of The Lamb – and Teaching them to Obey and Follow Christ too; in order that they may be Saved from the penalty of breaking God’s Law: which is DEATH (Matthew 28:18-20 / Galatians 1:8-9 / Hebrew 4:1-11 / Matthew 1129-30 / Luke 6:46)!!!

It is no wonder that the cross has come to symbolize the greatest story ever told: The Story of the Sacrificial death of Christ (John 1:29); in order to offer ALL People FORGIVENESS of Sins; and Eternal Life - in one of Two Resurrections from the dead –At, or AFTER, His Second Coming (Daniel 12:2-3 / 1 Corinthians 15:20-58 / 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 / 1 John 3:1-3 / Revelation 5:9-10, 20:4-6, 21:1-7,22:1-5 / Ezekiel 37:1-14)!!!

The Romans were not picky in regards to how they would crucify people. Historically, we know the Romans crucified people on crosses, poles, stakes, upside-down crosses, X-shaped crosses (such as the apostle Andrew is said to have been martyred on), walls, roofs, etc. Jesus could have been crucified on any of these objects, and it would not have affected the Perfection or Sufficiency of His Sacrifice – had NOT The Scriptures, and Jesus Christ, Both previously told us, that Jesus would die on a traditional Cross!!!

Yes; THE BIBLE, HISTORY, JESUS CHRIST, AND OTHER EYEWITNESSES – ALL DO - IN FACT - ANSWER the question: "Was Jesus crucified on a cross, pole, or stake?"

So Now, Let Us KNOW and PROVE Our TRUTH!!!




Hands, Wrists, Forearms; Ankles, or Feet? Where Do I Hammer The Nails?

  • That’s a question a Roman soldier would never have had to ask. They SURE KNEW how to Crucify people!!!


Circus Maximus was the largest, most important arena in Rome. For 500 years it was where the Romans held violent horse races, conducted public executions, crucifixions, and celebrated the greatest triumphs of their empire. Jesus would refer to these Romans as “Dogs” (Revelation 22:14-15). So would King David!!!

“For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced My Hands and My Feet!!!” (Psalm 22:16) – Translated from the Ancient Hebrew.

In the above Scripture, the specific Hebrew words for hands and feet were used, but let’s remember Genesis 3:15! Satan must bruise Christ’s heel (NOT Foot) to fulfill prophecy! So there is some latitude here in our piecing of this puzzle together!

If someone chopped you in the wrist, with an ax, severing your hand; you wouldn’t say, “They cut off my wrist!” You would say, “They cut off my hand!” Right? The same would be true if they took a sword and cut through your forearm. Again, they would have cut off your hand! Outside of an anatomy class, or a medical diagnosis; the Bible can use general terms to define specific actions (Isaiah 28:9-10)!

Think back to our previous example of the only documented Crucifixion remains yet discovered. Yehohanan had his ankles nailed to his cross, not exactly his feet. But we could say truthfully, that the Romans did nail his feet to the cross; being general in terminology about a specific action!

Remember in the Greek language of the time; forearms, and wrists were included broadly in the term “hands”. The Greek word “cheir” can refer to the hand and / or the wrist. The Latin Vulgate uses the word “manus” (in Luke 24:40), specifically referring to hands, as of the second century forward. However, the Vulgate was translated from the Original Greek, which originally used “cheir” (Hand or Wrist), in its place.


Jesus Was NAILED, Not Tied, To His Cross! Remember: “For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced My Hands and My Feet!!!” Psalm 22:16 is talking about NAILING Christ to His Cross; NOT tying Him to it!!!

You could be Tied to a cross, as the Romans sometimes did. But the word “Crucified”, in Jesus Christ’s case – and ALSO WITH the other four men with Him on that Passover Day in 31 A.D.; means to be NAILED to a Cross; NOT tied! Jesus was PAYING for our Sin Debt, for the Sins of the Whole World! He had to die a Maximum kind of death, in order to Pay for ALL The Sins - ever committed by flesh and blood humans – throughout time; and being NAILED to a Cross, was the WORST Kind of Death there was!!! That’s what Jesus FREELY took upon Himself – for YOU and I!!! Being NAILED to a Cross is also the PIERCING of both hands and feet, and it does fulfills David’s Prophecy about Jesus (Psalm 22:16); in a way that tying to a cross, would simply not do!!!

Then There Is Doubting Thomas (John 20:25)!

“The other disciples therefore said unto him (Thomas), ‘We have seen The Lord!’. But he (Thomas) said unto them, ‘Except I shall see in His Hands, the print (hole) of the nails, and put my finger into the print (hole) of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side; I will not believe!” (John 20:25). Thomas Knew and had Seen, Jesus NAILED to His Cross. There was NO “Tying” going on here!!! ALSO, take note that Thomas says “nails” plural – TWICE!!! If Jesus was nailed to a post with His Hands above His Head; only one nail (singular) would have been used for both hands!!!

Jesus then shows Thomas and the other Disciples the nail holes in His wrists and ankles!!! Thomas put his finger inside the Nail holes, and his hand into Christ’s open side!!! They were NOT examining Rope Burns, from Jesus being tied to a cross (John 20:26-29 / Luke 24:39-40)!!!

                                    JESUS IS LORD!!!

“Verily, Verily, I Say unto thee, ‘When thou wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old (mature), Thou shalt stretch forth (stretch out) Thy Hands, and another shall gird Thee, and carry Thee whither Thou wouldest not!’ This Spake He (Jesus), signifying by what death He should Glorify God!!! And when He had Spoken this, He Saith unto him, ‘Follow Me!!!’” (John 21:18-19).

Luke 24:50 “And He led them out as far as to Bethany, and He Lifted Up (NOTE: He did NOT “Stretched Forth” or stretch out) His Hands, and Blessed them!”

Notice the difference in Christ’s Hand positions! Lifted Up is vertical; Stretched Out is horizontal!!!

Is The Cross A Pagan Symbol?

Certain religions and faith groups, most notably the Jehovah’s Witnesses, are adamant that Jesus did not die on a cross; and they maintain that the cross is in fact a pagan symbol! But is it REALLY? What Scriptural and Historical Proofs do they offer (1 Thessalonians 5:21)? Their insistence on this point is curious, given the ambiguity of the Greek word “stauros” (meaning EITHER “a pole” or “a cross”) used as THE Instrument of capital punishment. As we have gone to great lengths to explain previously; Stauros is too vague of a word, if left by itself, to determine its specific meaning! We need other supporting or clarifying texts, to specifically differentiate and determine it.

The Jehovah’s Witnesses have worded their New World Translation to say that Jesus died on a “torture stake”, rather than on a cross. But as our investigation into Biblical Truths continues, we are seeing that the evidence for a pole, or an upright stake - alone, is lacking!!! Scripture is showing us that BOTH a Stake (or Post), AND a Cross (or Cross Piece) were used to BOTH Hang Jesus on a Tree; AND Nail Him with outstretched arms - to a Cross!!!

We also have our doubting Thomas, twice speaking of nails (plural) which made holes in Jesus’ Hands; NOT a sole Nail (singular), which would have made two holes in overlapping hands!

The Cross was a Pagan method of Death; but it is NOT a pagan symbol or idol of worship! Jesus Commands Christ Followers or “Christians” today, to “Take up (or pick up) their CROSS” and to Follow Him (Matthew 16:24-25)! The big giant post, stake, or tree was always buried several feet into the earth - for support and strength. The condemned would take up, or pick up, their cross piece or cross beam; and carry THAT to the tree, or post to be hoisted up onto!

The Emblem, or the method, of Christ’s Death: A Cross; is a Jesus Christ Authorized and Sanctioned, metaphor and symbol in His Body of Believers!!! Nobody worships the long ago rotted away wooden timbers; today Christians who display a cross - Worship The One True God – Who Sent His Son to DIE on a Cross, to Pay Off our Sin Debts!!! Thank You Jesus – For YOUR Sacrifice AND YOUR Cross!!! May we all be worthy to carry our crosses, as you so selflessly Did for ALL of us!!!


If the Traditional Cross used by Billions today, was really a pagan symbol; why would the pagans go through such pains to disgrace it, submerge it in urine, and deface it?

“And he that taketh NOT his Cross, and Followeth after Me; is NOT Worthy of Me!!!” – Jesus Christ in Matthew 10:38.

By telling us to take up our cross and Follow Him, Jesus is Saying in essence, that in order for us to be His True Followers - we must die to self!!! If we call ourselves “Christians,” then we must deny ourselves, and give up our lives for His sake!!! This may take the extreme form of being martyred for our faith; but in most cases, and even in the most peaceful political settings, it means not to literally give up our life on a cross – but that we must be willing to lose OUR “SELF” - Crucifying self-righteousness, self-promotion, selfish ambitions, and our Self-Centeredness - in order to be His Followers. Picking Up Our Cross means - our old life is gone, when we Follow Christ; just like a man who actually was sentenced to death, and picked up his cross (piece) – he will never go back to the things and places he once knew! Those who are not willing to do so are “not worthy” of Him; so Says Jesus (Matthew 10:38)! And this is WHY The CROSS is NOT a pagan Symbol, regardless of what the godless do with it.



The Cross – It’s A Beautiful Thing!!!

ONLY JESUS Could Make The Cross A Beautiful Symbol Of A NEW LIFE In Him; Made From One Of The Most Terrible Forms Of Ancient Death!

“Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a New Creature! Old things are passed away (or have died)! Behold, ALL THINGS (even The Cross) are become NEW!!!” (2 Corinthians 5:17).

The Cross Symbolizes dying to our old self; and walking in a Holy, New Life, Following The Teachings, The Laws, The Plan of God which Jesus Came to Teach ALL Flesh to Follow (Romans 6:6 / Galatians 2:20 / Psalm 119:172 / John 14:15,21)!!! The Cross Symbolizes Christ dying, shedding His Blood to Pay For our Sins; it Symbolizes our Redemption to Our Heavenly Father AS HIS CHILDREN!!! The Cross Symbolizes The Implementation of The Plan of God - when The Father Comes to our earth (Matthew 5:5) – To Make ALL Things NEW (Revelation 21:1-8); and that is WHY Satan, and all his many different flavors of minions, HATE it so!!! And NOW YOU KNOW!!!



The instrument of Jesus' crucifixion (known in Latin as crux, in Greek as stauros) is generally taken to have been composed of an upright wooden beam or post (tree), to which was added a transom (cross piece or cross beam), thus forming a "cruciform" or a Cross / T-shaped structure. Sometimes we see it with a hypopodium (or foot rest) added; but this would not really have Christ hanging on His Cross (he would be standing); and Christ had to “hang” ON a tree, in order to be cursed (Deuteronomy 21:23 / Galatians 3:13). A foot rest or hypopodium would also NOT allow for Christ’s heel to be bruised, or nail through.

Most Christian denominations present the Christian cross in this form, and the tradition of the T-shapes (Traditional “t” and Capital “T” shapes) can be traced to early Christianity and the Church fathers. However, some scholars of the late 19th century have maintained that it was in reality a simple stake (crux simplex), or death stake, as the Jehovah’s Witnesses claim.

The Koine Greek terms used in the New Testament of the structure on which Jesus died are stauros (σταυρός) and xylon (ξύλον). Those words, which can refer to many different things, do not indicate the precise shape of the structure. Scholars have long known that the Greek word stauros and the Latin word crux did not uniquely mean a cross. They have known too that the words had that meaning also, and so have not considered necessarily incorrect, the traditional picture of a cross with transom.

The ambiguity of the terms was noted by Justus Lipsius - in his De Cruce (1594), Jacob Gretser - in his De Cruce Christi (1598), and Thomas Godwyn - in his Moses and Aaron (1662).

John Pearson, Bishop of Chester (c. 1660) wrote in his commentary on the Apostles' Creed that the Greek word stauros originally signified "a straight standing Stake, Pale, or Palisador", but that, "when other transverse or prominent parts were added in a perfect Cross, it retained still the Original Name", and he declared: "The Form then of the Cross on which our Saviour suffered was not a simple, but a compounded, Figure, according to the Custom of the Romans, by whose Procurator he was condemned to die. In which there was not only a straight and erected piece of Wood fixed in the Earth, but also a transverse Beam fastned unto that towards the top thereof".

Justus Lipsius invented a specific terminology to distinguish different forms of what could be called a cross or crux. His basic twofold distinction was between the crux simplex (a simple stake) and the crux compacta (a composite of two pieces of wood).

The victim could be affixed to the crux simplex or could be impaled on it (as we have discussed previously in our Study).  

Lipsius then subdivided the crux compacta into three types: the crux decussata (X-shaped), crux commissa (T-shaped), and crux immissa (†-shaped).

Lipsius himself, as also Gretser and Godwyn; held that Jesus was nailed not to a crux simplex, but to a crux immissa. However, W. E. Vine and E. W. Bullinger, as well as Henry Dana Ward, considered that the "cross" (Greek stauros, in its original sense literally an upright pale or stake) had no crossbar, and that the traditional picture of Jesus on a cross with a crossbar was incorrect. The Scriptures we have looked at so far, in this Study, rule out a stake or post only; and Thomas’ statements show us we need at least TWO Nails – one per hand (as in outstretch arms)!!! So Biblically, we CAN NO LONGER define "Stauros", as a stake only! It MUST HAVE A CROSS BEAM – Biblically, to fulfill ALL of the Scriptures we have read so far (Isaiah 28:9-10 / 1 Thessalonians 5:21 / Matthew 13:52, 28:20)!!!

Who Began Calling Christ’s Cross A Pagan Symbol?

Plymouth Brethren preacher W. E. Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words also states that the primary meaning of stauros was an upright pale or stake on which malefactors were nailed for execution. Vine said the shape of the ecclesiastical form of two-beamed cross had its origin in ancient Chaldea, and was used as the symbol of the god Tammuz (taking on the shape of the mystic Tau, the initial of his name) in Chaldea and nearby lands, including Egypt. He said third century churches, which by then had departed from certain doctrines of the Christian faith, accepted pagans into the faith in order to increase their prestige and allowed them to retain their pagan signs and symbols. "Hence the Tau or T, in its most frequent form, with the cross-piece lowered, was adopted to stand for the 'cross' of Christ."

You and I, having Proven our Truth above – AND By Scripture Alone; KNOW Vine was incorrect in his assertion that The Cross is a pagan relic!!! A Cross Piece is permissible in the Greek definition of the word; and mandated to fulfill ALL of the Scriptures God has preserved for us today!

Anglican theologian E. W. Bullinger, in The Companion Bible (which was completed and published in 1922, nine years after his 1913 death), was emphatic in his belief that stauros never meant two pieces of timber placed across one another at any angle, "but always of one piece alone ... There is nothing [of the word stauros] in the Greek of the N.T. even to imply two pieces of timber."

Students of The Word of God, and of this Bible Study, now KNOW how to PROVE Bullinger incorrect in his assertions! The New Testament has MUCH to say about a Cross and Cross Piece that stretched out Christ’s Arms!

Bullinger wrote that in the catacombs of Rome, Christ was never represented there as "hanging on a cross" and that the cross was a pagan symbol of life (the ankh) in Egyptian churches that was borrowed by the Christians. Both of these statements may be true; but that does NOT undo Scripture! What the Catholics, or the Egyptians, do or don’t do; in NO WAY affects God’s Eternal Truth, Plans, or Word!!! Praise God!!!


Carrying The Cross Piece (Patibulum):

Andreas J. Köstenberger (2004) notes that traditional academic reconstruction of the cross has first Jesus, then Simon of Cyrene bear the "stauros"; i.e.: only the horizontal crossbar (Latin patibulum). Yet when Simon carries the patibulum to Golgotha, the crossbar is then hoisted to the stake to make the traditional crucifix shape!!! Schröter (1997) notes that the lack of references in ancient sources, aside from Plautus (The Charcoal Woman and The Braggart Warrior) and Plutarch (Moralia), to "bearing the cross", implies that a criminal carrying his own patibulum was not very common. However, Scripture makes ample reference to both Christ AND us, to Carrying Our Cross (Piece) or Patibulum!!!

James B. Torrance, in the article "Cross", in the New Bible Dictionary, writes that the Greek word for "cross" (stauros; verb stauroō; Lat. crux, crucifigo, "I fasten to a cross") means primarily an upright stake or beam, but also allows the construction that Jesus and Simon of Cyrene carried a patibulum to Golgotha!!!

In applying the word stauros to the crossbeam, these writers indicate that the complete structure on which Jesus died was not a single upright post, but formed what is normally called a cross!!!

The Greek-English Lexicon of Liddell and Scott, reports that the meaning of the word "σταυρός" in the early Homeric form of Greek, possibly of the eighth to sixth century BC, and also in the writings of the fifth-century BC writers Herodotus and Thucydides; and the early-4th century BC Xenophon, is "an upright pale or stake" used to build a palisade or "a pile driven in to serve as a foundation"!!! It reports that in the writings of the first-century BC Diodorus Siculus, first-century AD Plutarch and early second-century Lucian—as well as in Matthew 27:40, Luke 9:23, 14:27—the word "σταυρός" is used to refer to a cross, either as the instrument of crucifixion or metaphorically of voluntary suffering; "its form was indicated by the Greek letter T". It also reports that Plutarch used the word with regard to a pale for impaling a corpse. Of the writers whom Liddell and Scott gives as using "σταυρός" to mean a cross, the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, holds that in Diodorus Siculus, the word probably means a stake for hanging (a patibulum – cross piece). Plutarch (in An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat) distinguishes crucifixion on a stauros, from impalement on a skolops!!! The Bible is ALSO VERY CLEAR that Jesus Hung, outstretched arms, on a patibulum or cross piece; which was hung on a tree!!!

How Strong were the Condemned? Could they carry a whole Post and Cross Piece to their place of execution?

Historical sources and The Bible say that there were two possible ways of erecting the stauros, which would probably have been not much higher than the height of a man. In Christ’s case, we know the crosses were higher than a man’s height, as the Roman soldier pierced Christ’s side with a spear; NOT a Knife or Sword (John 19:31-37)!!!

Option 1) The condemned man could be fastened to the cross lying on the ground at the place of execution, then lifted up on it.

Option 2) Alternatively, it was probably usual to have the stake implanted in the ground BEFORE the execution. The victim was tied to the crosspiece and was hoisted up with the horizontal beam and made fast to the vertical stake. They say that as this was the simpler form of erection, and the carrying of the crossbeam (patibulum) was probably a form of punishment for slaves, the crux commissa may be taken as the normal practice!!! This is the option BOTH The Bible, and Common Sense, support!!! Even in Hollywood recreations of the Crucifixion; actors struggle with lightweight full size crosses, when they try to drag them through the streets! REMEMBER: CHRIST INSTRUCTIONS ARE TO “CARRY” OUR CROSSES; NOT TO DRAG THEM BEHIND US!!!


Jesus DID NOT Have wheels on his Cross!


Rely on The Bible for YOUR TRUTH; NOT Hollywood!


Now YOU Know…

  1. David killed Goliath of Gath, cut his head off; and buried his head at Golgotha (The Place of Goliath’s skull)!
  2. Christ Defeated Satan, The Head of the kingdom of darkness at Golgotha; while Satan bruises Christ’s heel, by driving a crucifixion stake through His Ankles – not the tops of His feet!
  3. Polls are Skulls, and they are counted, cursed, and Blessed by God – at Golgotha!!!
  4. The Cross of Christ is NOT a pagan symbol; It Represents God’s LOVE for US (John 3:16)!!!
  5. Christ’s Cross was a traditional (2/3’s of the way up – cross beam or patibulum)
  6. Christ was nailed through the wrists with outstretched arms to His Cross Piece – Patibulum.
  7. The Cross was hoisted and hung on a Tree or Post – which was already planted firmly in the ground!
  8. The 5 Crosses at Jesus’ Passover Crucifixion, were on the roadway; NOT on the hilltop.
  9. The Charges were written on all the condemned crosses, down low, under the accused, where they could be read by MANY-not a few rock climbers!
  10. Pilate added ADDITIONAL info to Christ’s charges!
  11. JESUS IS LORD – Our Risen Savior! He’s Coming Back Soon; so let’s ALL Abandon Sin, LOVE GOD through Obedience; Pick Up our Crosses – and Walk in NEWNESS of LIFE-In Jesus Christ!!!


In Jesus Christ’s Precious Name, By Who’s Blood We Are Cleansed!!! Amen!!!

                            – Submitted by Pastor R.C. Brown III

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Bible Study GOLGOTHA The Place Of The Skull 14 -21 April 2018 Parts 1&2.pdf4.56 MB